Common European Framework of Reference
The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR) is a European standard, also used in other countries, which serves to measure the level of oral and written comprehension and expression in a given language.
What is the Common European Framework of Reference?
The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages is an essential part of the overall language policy project of the Council of Europe, which has developed a considerable and well-founded effort to unify guidelines for the learning and teaching of all languages within the European context. This effort is sufficiently supported by projects that have significantly marked the lines of work of language teaching professionals in Europe in recent decades, such as the development of the descriptive scales of language levels described in:
Level Threshold: which includes levels A1 and A2
Level Platform: corresponding to levels B1 and B2.
Advanced Level: such as C1 and C2.
In this project we can also find out what learning process is followed by those students who decide to opt for this project, the guidelines for teaching to be followed in relation to the different levels and how this knowledge will be evaluated in order for students to develop fluently in the real world. The CEFR also includes reports and orientation works such as Transparency and coherence in language learning in Europe, Objectives for learning foreign languages, etc. The following table explains which skills and abilities are acquired at each level:
COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE
Skills and abilities at each level
Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and simple phrases to meet immediate needs. Can introduce him/herself and others, ask for and give basic personal information about his/her home, belongings and people known to him/herself. Can interact in a basic way as long as the other person talks slowly and clearly and is willing to cooperate.
Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of experience which are particularly relevant to him/her (basic information about him/herself and his/her family, shopping, places of interest, occupations, etc.). Can communicate when carrying out simple, everyday tasks requiring nothing more than simple, direct exchanges of information on familiar or routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her past and environment as well as issues related to his/her immediate needs.
Can understand the main points of clear, standard texts if they deal with familiar matters, whether at work, school or leisure. Can deal with most situations that may arise during a trip to areas where the language is used. Can produce simple, coherent texts on subjects which are familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences, events, wishes and aspirations, as well as briefly justify opinions or explain plans.
B2 (Bilingual Level)
Can understand the main ideas of complex texts dealing with both concrete and abstract subjects, even if they are of a technical nature as long as they are within his/her field of specialisation. Can interact with native speakers with a sufficient degree of fluency and naturalness so that communication is effortless for either party. Can produce clear, detailed text on a variety of subjects and defend a point of view on general subjects, indicating the pros and cons of different options.
C1 (Effective Operational Domain)
Can understand a wide variety of demanding, long texts and recognise implicit meanings. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious effort to find the right expression. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, well-structured and detailed text on complex subjects, showing correct use of the mechanisms of organisation, articulation and cohesion of the text.
Is able to understand with ease practically everything he hears or reads. Can reconstruct information and arguments from a variety of sources, whether spoken or written, and present them in a coherent and summarised manner. Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and with a degree of precision that allows him/her to differentiate small nuances of meaning even in more complex situations.